2. Never look a dog directly in the eye. Always avert your eyes because direct eye contact is considered a challenge
3. Reach below the chin, never above. If you reach above the chin, the dog may interpret it as a sign of dominance, which can be intimidating.
4. Offer an open hand, palm up. Dogs identify by scent, and here is no scent on the back of your hand. Palm-up also suggests that you are offering a treat, and dogs consider people who share to be their friends.
5. Never hold a child or small dog directly over a dog's head. If you must hold a small dog or baby above another dog, lie the small dog or child on the back, belly up. Holding a small dog or a child over the head may be seen by the dog as dominance, which may be intimidating or perceived as a challenge.
6. Don't run from an approaching dog. Turn sideways and remain still. Dogs are predators, and respond to rapid movement. Being still prevents the dog from focusing on you. Standing sideways signals a truce and tells the dog, "I don't want to fight you."